Traditional Life of Molsom Tribe of Tripura
Discover Tripura Correspondent
Tripura is a
place covered with hills and hill-locks, danse natural forest embankment, green
valleys, rivers, streams and wide field. People in general of multi-ethnic
tribal communities are the dwellers in this natural environment.
came to this territory from places like Myanmar
and Shan state of upper Burma
mostly belong to Tibeto-Burman linguistic family and Mongoloid origin.
communities of Tripura are Tripuri, Reang, Jamatia, Chakma, Mog, Halam, kuki,
Lusai etc. Among these tribes, Halam is known to be nomadic group of tribes
having several sub tribes like, Rankhwal, Kolai, Rupini, Molsom, Kaipengs etc.
In fact Halam is considered a group of Tribes who are once treated as a sub-tribe
of Kukies. The then Maharajas of Tripura divided some of the sub tribes of
Kukies as Halam which is known 'Barki Halamâ' and Obevions Malsom belongs to
that Barki Halam group of Tribes.
could be located in the danse forest and nearest to the jhum field. Like Reangs
they also prefer to live in Tong Houses which is in their language known as
"Chungin" The Chungin are made by them in temporary status as they frequently shift their dwelling with the
change need of jhum land.
Molsom are mainly concentrated in Udaipur
and Amarpur sub-division. They are also found though few families in Sadar
sub-division and some pocket of Kamalpur.
concentrated villages of Udaipur
are Manithang Bari, Barbari, Atharobhola, Thalibari, Raiyabari and in Kamalpur
are Shibbari, Raipara, Dhancharra.
Molsom have a
similar social structure like other tribes of Tripura. Father is the authoritian
head of Molsom family. Oldest female member of the family looks after all family
matters including children affairs. Father act as head of the family work hard
for jhum cultivation, maintaining inter personal relationship with the
villagers and link with community chief. Wife and young boys and girls of the
family assist their father for production of food stuff. All the rites and
rituals are arranged jointly by father and mother.
of Molsom is almost same to that of Reang and Tripuri. In the council Chowdhury
is the chief and there are three other members.The members of the Molsom village
council are selected through villagers in a meeting called village chief. This
council meet up all sort of dispute like land issue, family matters, community
issues, adultery, marriage and divorce issues. There is no fixed tenure of the
As per customary
laws property right passes from father to son. Wife and daughter also get share
in the land and belongings of their respective husband or father.
Birth culture of
Molsom are so primitive, that out side their community find so many things to
learn about primitive culture. After getting pregnent and passed 4 (four)
months a ritual viz "Kabeng" is observe for good health of coming issue.and
pregnant mother. If "Mukothung" ritual
is not perform within one month after the child birth it is feared that evil
spirits like 'Khuriâ' may cause repeated vomiting. Ochai also perform puja "Prosenpoi" deity and sacrifices to appease that deity.
ceremony of puberty for the boys and girls namely 'Takbrokmiâ' and 'Punmizelâ'.
The child hood
of both like boys and girls is passed with cherity. During the period they are
trained for all sort of socio-economic
works and activities like group hunting of wild animal, fishing, domestic
works, weaving cloths, making basketry besides agriculture works.
Young boys and
girls after proper training involved themselves in jhum based life. Marriage
of young boys and girls also lead a
social recognition. Molsom are monogamous and marriage alliances always take
place within their 12 clans only. Child marriage is not practiced by them. Both
the cross-cousin and parallel cousin marriage are in prevalent among Molsom.
re-marriage is also permited by the village council. On the actual day of
marriage series of rites and rituals are performed when large gathering of
relatives and villagers took place.
The Achai chant mantra
before the bride and bride groom, throughout the day dances and music continued
to celebrate the day, when good quantity of country liquor (Zukola) and meat of
pigs and hen are largely consumed.
economy it is to mention that tribals in general practices jhum cultivation
which is according to Molsom known as "Lau". This is a primitive method of cultivation
done in hill tops in green bamboo forest after a series of preparatory
activities for sowing various seeds including paddy.
rich rituals is done before the harvesting of paddy Molsom irrespective male
and female enjoy this ritual and pig, goat and hens are sacrificed in that
rituals and Huge quantity of liquor is consumed by them in this festival and
enjoy by dancing and singing.
Both male and
female take part in the harvesting. New rice festival also observed by them
which is known as "Sarbimgor". Boiled jhum rice is offered on a banana leaf with
sacrificed hen. This festival is generally accompanied with dance and music in
any full moon day.
another sustainable economy of Molsom for meeting up their need of meat. They
make trap to capture wild animal and group hunting is very much playful before
Molsom also practice
fishing in logged water and stream and near by river for subsidiary food.
Besides, Molsom are very much expart in making all sort of basketry for sale
and family use. They also produce cash crop for earning cash money and rear
poultry fields, pigs, goats, cow etc.
Molsom girls are
found of making their own garments like Puenzel (Pasra in Kokborok) as waist
garments and Risa, the breast garments. They produced these garments through
They are also
very much fond of dances and music. Hi-hook dance of Molsam certainly a
primitive cultural trait. The Folk song and music related with this dance are
so melodious that it touches everybody. They used to sing songs during working
jhum field, love songs when young star get together in any occasion and
religious songs when they observes family rituals and community festivals.
The musical instruments
they use are Champreng, Kham, Flute, Sarinda etc. Major dances of Molsom are
Hi=hook, murui, Sharhil. They call the dances as Lam. They have any indigenous
games. Children play games when elders are engaged in agriculture works.
are Hindus. They do have believe in God and Goddess of as per Sakti Cult.
Similarly they have belief in animistic activities. They believe that there
must be a supernatural force which have control over their life. Their major
deities are Scepari Sangrak, There are somany mythological stories behind their
religious belief and practices.
Molsom as a part
of their traditional culture cremate their dead after following several rituals.
They make a procession with the body placing it on a Tolai which is a platform
of bamboo splits. Beside a river they construct super structure to place the
body and burn it by the nearest kin of the diseased.
"Tuisungro" worship also held in the burning ghut after seven days and a general feast is
also arranged by the next relatives. As community feast for peace and good
being of deceased's soul.
*** End of Article ***